The French manufacturer Peugeot has been at the forefront of diesel technology, and from the 1980s, the French government favoured this technology. Victor Glad suggests that the same crisis of representation motivating the citizens' initiative referenda is also behind the gilets jaunes' criticism of the traditional media.

[180][184] The explosions occurred early on 12 January,[180] while Paris was under heavy guard in anticipation of the day's demonstrations.

[265][266], On 27 January 2019 a counter-demonstration occurred in Paris by a group identifying themselves by the foulards rouges ("red scarves") they chose to wear. [241] On 15 December 2018, on the sidelines of the demonstration on the Champs-Élysées, Deborah De Robertis organized a demonstration in which five women appear topless in front of the French police, with a costume reminiscent of the French Goddess of Liberty Marianne. We also reject the threats and constant verbal abuse (aimed at non-yellow vests)". [252] He subsequently promised a minimum wage increase of €100 per month from 2019, cancelled a planned tax increase for low-income pensioners, and made overtime payments as well as end-of-year bonuses tax free. [75] The symbol has become "a unifying thread and call to arms" because yellow vests are common and inexpensive, easy to wear over any clothing, associated with working class industries, highly visible, and widely understood as a distress signal. [176], The interior minister announced that over 60% of the traffic enforcement cameras in the country had been vandalised. [119] For example in Rouen during the Acte IX, LCI television reporters were attacked by a group of protesters, thrown to the ground and beaten. [137], More than 100 cars were burned in Paris during the protest on 1 December, and the Arc de Triomphe was vandalised.

[164] Two distribution platforms were blocked in Montélimar: EasyDis (Groupe Casino) and Amazon.
Anne Hidalgo, the Mayor of Paris, called upon the government to do something about the political and social fracture.

[124], International media have also reported on the disproportionate violence used by the French police response against the protestors, including the use of explosive grenades and flashball weapons resulting in multiple incidences of loss of limb and sight by the protestors. [67] The movement was initially motivated by rising fuel prices and a high cost of living; it claims that a disproportionate burden of the government's tax reforms were falling on the working and middle classes,[68][69][70] especially in rural and peri-urban areas. [240] Dancer Nadia Vadori-Gauthier improvised a choreography in the street during demonstrations with the fumes of the various gases and fires of cars. Dozens of people have been similarly injured during the course of the yellow vests protests. [170], Women's role, both in defining the movement's objectives[67][171] and in communicating at roundabouts,[172] is—for editorialist Pierre Rimbert—a reflection of the fact that women make up the majority of workers in "intermediary professions" but are three times more likely to be classed as "employees" than men according to an INSEE study in 2017. [237] Cancellations have risen as visitors are scared off from traveling to France for safety and security concerns, while corporate trips have also sought to avoid Paris, because the protests have turned the city into a liability. [96][97], Diesel prices in France increased by 16 percent in 2018, with taxes on both petrol and diesel increasing at the same time and a further tax increase planned for 2019, making diesel as expensive as petrol. [90] In 2015, two out of every three cars purchased consumed diesel fuel. [130][131][132], The protests began on 17 November 2018, and attracted more than 300,000 people across France with protesters constructing barricades and blocking roads.

The change was opposed and was a factor in the rise of the yellow vest movement. [129] More recently, several politicians included the idea in their 2017 presidential platforms.

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