The deterioration in vehicle acceleration and gradeability is probably the main disadvantage of the electric vehicle mode, compared with a conventional vehicle. One variety operated in parallel to simultaneously provide power from both motors. BAS Hybrid offered as much as a 27% improvement in combined fuel efficiency in EPA testing of the 2009 Saturn VUE. However, the drive train topology, engine size, electric machine size, transmission technology, and control system of these hybrid vehicles are all completely different. Heuristic torque split control strategies include other rule-based [17] or fuzzy logic [18] designs that typically utilised the high low-speed torque characteristic of the electric motor. Often an internal combustion engine is used as generator, and in the case of the Mercedes B concept a fuel cell is used as a primary power source.

Series-hybrid systems offer smoother acceleration by avoiding gear changes. The main configurations are external and flywheel connection. However, the drive train topology, engine size, electric machine size, transmission technology, and control system of these hybrid vehicles are all completely different.
Here is a comparison of the two approaches, 11 Melville Street, Sandown, Isle Of Wight, PO36 8LF. For Land Rover five vehicles are being trialled for 12 months during 2011. Such a vehicle conceptually resembles a diesel-electric locomotive with the addition of a battery that may power the vehicle without running the ICE and acting as an energy buffer that is used to accelerate and achieve greater speed; the generator may simultaneously charge the battery and power the electric motor that moves the vehicle. Some manufacturers like to quote total system power which is a sum of the total power from each power source. After depleting the secondary power source, the control strategy switches to charge sustaining mode using the primary power source (an internal combustion engine or a fuel cell). The reason for this is that moving the engine and gearbox apart & introducing generator and motor reduces driveline efficiency by roughly 20%. The company claimed a standard pickup vehicle powered by a 2.3 litre 4 cylinder engine achieved 14 MPG (16.8 l/100 km) in city driving.

Generally, it can be concluded that there is a large variety of hybrid vehicles.
(Wankel engines also run efficiently at a constant speed of approximately 2,000 RPM which is suited to generator operation. The major research efforts on parallel HEVs are focused on the implementation of continuously variable transmission (CVT) instead of a fixed-step transmission that gives the freedom to operate the ICE at its most efficient point at demanded torque [9]. These vehicles can run as a pure electric vehicle. Histoire de l’usine Pieper-Impéria, [2] General Motors Parallel Hybrid Truck (PHT) and BAS Hybrids such as the Saturn VUE and Aura Greenline and Chevrolet Malibu hybrids also employ a parallel hybrid architecture.

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